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Rule 1.7: Conflict of Interest


Adopted, Effective Jan. 1, 2008

Rule 1.7: Conflict of Interest

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), a lawyer shall not represent a client if the representation involves a concurrent conflict of interest. A concurrent conflict of interest exists if:

    (1) the representation of one client will be directly adverse to another client; or

    (2) there is a significant risk that the representation of one or more clients will be materially limited by the lawyer's responsibilities to another client, a former client or a third person or by a personal interest of the lawyer.

(b) Notwithstanding the existence of a concurrent conflict of interest under paragraph (a), a lawyer may represent a client if:

    (1) the lawyer reasonably believes that the lawyer will be able to provide competent and diligent representation to each affected client;

    (2) the representation is not prohibited by law;

    (3) the representation does not involve the assertion of a claim by one client against another client represented by the lawyer in the same litigation or other proceeding before a tribunal; and

    (4) each affected client gives informed consent, confirmed in writing.

    The requirements that a lawyer maintain loyalty to a client and protect the client's confidences are fundamental.  Although both the former rule 1.7 and the current rule 1.7(b) allow a lawyer to undertake representation in circumstances when there is exists a concurrent conflict of interest, the lawyer should use extreme caution in deciding to undertake such representation.  The lawyer must make an independent judgment that he or she can provide "competent and diligent representation" before the lawyer can even ask for consent to proceed.  The court in subsequent proceedings can review such a judgment.  See Fiandaca v. Cunningham, 827 F.2d. 825 (1st Cir. 1987).

    In evaluating the appropriateness of representation in a conflict situation under 1.7(b), the New Hampshire Bar Association Ethics Committee has used under the old rules the "harsh reality test" which states:

"(i)f a disinterested lawyer were to look back at the inception of this representation once something goes wrong, would that lawyer seriously question the wisdom of the first attorney's requesting the client's consent to this representation or question whether there had been full disclosure to the client prior to obtaining the consent.  If this "harsh reality test" may not be readily satisfied by the inquiring attorney, the inquiring attorney and other members of the inquiring attorney's firm should decline representation . . ."  N.H. Ethics Opinion. 1988-89/24;

This test has proven useful to practicing attorneys and retains its validity under the amended rules.

    As discussed in Comment 17 to the ABA Model Rules, the determination of whether two clients are directly aligned against one another so as to give rise to a non-waivable conflict will require case-by-case analysis in the context of the particular circumstances.  Other factors – including the availability of insurance, hold harmless agreements or indemnification agreements – may also be relevant in determining whether the interests of the clients are in reality "directly adverse" so as to preclude waiver of, or consent to, the conflict.  However, even when third party payers or other financial protections eliminate the clients' financial exposure in litigation, there are claims (for example, assertions of comparative fault among professionals) in which the client, not the insurer, may have a strong personal interest in a vigorous defense of their work despite the fact that insurance will cover any judgment.  This makes such concurrent representation impossible.  In making these determinations, the harsh reality test discussed above should be foremost in the attorney's mind.


Supreme Court Rule 42(9) requires all NH admitted attorneys to notify the Bar Association of any address change, home or office.

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